KCP Winter 2015 Alumnus Thu Nguyen shares her thoughts of Japan in this series of photos.
For more photos of Japan and KCP, visit KCP Flickr.
KCP Winter 2015 Alumnus Thu Nguyen shares her thoughts of Japan in this series of photos.
For more photos of Japan and KCP, visit KCP Flickr.
Note: article contains graphic content.
Seppuku is the samurai’s honorable way of dying through his own hand. The samurai bushido honor code explicitly states that a samurai can perform seppuku voluntarily rather than fall into the hands of the enemy and likely be subjected to torture, or because he has brought shame to himself. It was also a form of capital punishment for a samurai who had committed a serious offense.
Seppuku (切腹), “self-disembowelment,” also known as “hara-kiri” or belly-cutting, involves plunging a short sword into the left side of the abdomen, pulling the sword all the way to the right side and then turning it upwards, making it practically impossible for the wound to close and heal. It was considered exemplary to make a followup stab below the chest and press the sword downwards to cut across the initial cut, and finally to pierce one’s throat to culminate the seppuku ritual. This ritual act of taking one’s own life was thought to be a definitive demonstration of a samurai’s courage, strong resolve, and self-control, for seppuku is an extremely painful, slow way to die. It showed a true samurai’s sincerity of purpose.
Ukiyo-e woodblock print of warrior about to perform seppuku, by Kunikazu Utagawa.
There were instances when a samurai would perform voluntary seppuku to show his loyalty to his lord by following him to his death, as a form of protest against his superior or some government policy, or to atone for failing to do his duties. Obligatory seppuku was a method of capital punishment that spared the samurai the disgrace of being beheaded by a common executioner. Seppuku was finally abolished in 1873.
During the Edo Period (1600–1867), seppuku became a more detailed ritual. Planned seppuku was usually performed in front of an audience. A samurai was bathed, clothed in white robes, and served his favorite food as his final meal. When he was finished, he readied his knife, “tantō,” or short sword, “wakizashi,” the blade partially covered with cloth so he would not cut his hand and lose his grip. The samurai would also be dressed ceremonially with his sword placed in front of him and then he would prepare to write his death poem. A samurai would usually be assisted by his chosen second, “kaishakunin,” who would be standing close by. The chosen second performed kaishaku, a cut that decapitated the samurai.
General Akashi Gidayu preparing to commit seppuku after losing a battle for his master in 1582, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka.
Jigaki is a form of ritual suicide by wives of samurai who have committed seppuku or have brought dishonor to their name. Jigaki involves slicing the arteries of the neck with one stroke for a quick and certain death, unlike the slow and painful death of seppuku. It was also performed by women to preserve one’s honor in instances of military defeat to avoid rape. According to the bushido, it is an example of a truly determined, brave, and honorable way to die.
Seppuku knife. | Rama
Kamakura (鎌倉) in Kanagawa Prefecture is a peaceful coastal town about an hour from Tokyo. Minamoto Yorimoto (1147–1199) was the founder and first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate. Japan’s seat of military government was based in Kamakura; rule continued for more than a century under the Minamoto shogun and then by the Hōjō regents.
On 3 July 1333, Nitta Yoshisada, a loyal supporter of the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo, seized Kamakura from the Hōjō clan. Accounts of the tragic Hōjō defeat record that 900 Hōjō samurai and three Regents committed seppuku at Tōshō-ji, their family temple. Almost the entire clan vanished in one event. The city was in ruins and many of the temples were burned to the ground. Even ordinary citizens of Kamakura followed suit in a mass seppuku: an estimated 6,000 died by their own hand. Five hundred fifty-six skeletons from that period were recovered in 1953 during excavations near Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū’s Ichi no Torii in Yuigahama. Most likely, they died violent deaths from the hands of Nitta’s men.
San no Torii at Kamakura. | KCP Flickr
The fall of Kamakura marked the beginning of a violent and chaotic era known as the Muromachi period. The decline of Kamakura was slow; it was known as the capital of the Kantō region which dominated the east of Japan and lasted almost as long as the shogunate regime.
The destruction of Kamakura did not stop with wars. In 1868, during anti-Buddhist violence (haibutsu kishaku) that followed after the official policy of separation of Shinto and Buddhism (shinbutsu bunri), more temples in the city saw major damage. Many of the temples and shrines had to give away some of their treasures, affecting their cultural heritage and value.
When the railroad reached Kamakura in 1890, it allowed visitors access to see and appreciate the beauty and history of Kamakura. Many of the temples that were built centuries ago have been restored.
KCP Spring 2015 students at Kamakura. | KCP Flickr
Kamakura’s beautiful cultural assets are popular among visitors today. Kamakura’s history and heritage, once lost, have been rebuilt now and proudly stand as a testament to Japan’s proud history.
KCP students enjoy the beach at Kamakura. | KCP Flickr
Join KCP Spring 2015 students as they visit Kamakura. Visit our photo album at KCP Flickr.
We hear glorious samurai tales of honor, valor, and loyalty attributed to their strict adherence to the code of conduct, bushidō, or “the way of the warrior.” Samurai were the Japanese nobility of medieval and early modern Japan.
Japanese armor can be traced all the way back to the 4th century. It has developed greatly over the years since it was first used in the battlefield, evolving from the armor used in ancient China and Korea. During the 16th century when European trade was introduced to Japan, the samurai had its first look at European armor. Japanese armor was modified and incorporated with local armor and eventually produced better protection for the wearer.
Ō-yoroi. | Jason Lewis
The ō-yoroi (大鎧) or “great armor” is an early Japanese armor worn by the samurai class during Japan’s feudal era. It combines plate and scales (kozane) laced together (lamellar). Ō-yoroi can be traced to the Heian period in the 10th century. It became popular in the 12th century during the Genpei War, when armor was much in demand. It was designed primarily for cavalry archers, for it was box-shaped and did not allow much movement. In the 15th century, the ō-yoroi was not a favorite choice of armor because the samurai used more infantry tactics in battle.
The ō-yoroi is considered a rich man’s armor, as it was worn mostly by higher ranking samurai on horseback. Lower ranking samurai wore something similar only it had fewer components, was more lightweight, and lacked the decorative aspects of higher ranking samurai. The ō-yoroi’s basic components are known as “hei-no-rokugu” or “rokugu”, meaning “six articles of arms.” The six major components are sune-ate (shin armor), menpo (facial armor), kabuto (helmet), dō (chest armor), kote (armored sleeves), and the hai-date (thigh armor). The material, color, and design of the lacing identified the clan the samurai belonged to. The ō-yoroi truly remains a proud part of Japan’s unique history.
Shōguns were powerful military governors of Japan during the shogunate regime from 1192 to 1867. Shōgun means general; their rank and position were hereditary. Officially they were appointed by the emperor, but they were de facto rulers of the country. A shogun’s office was the “shogunate” or bafuku (tent office/government), also the term for the shōgun’s officials. The imperial court maintained minimal power compared to that of the shōgun and the bafuku.
Shōgun is the short term for Sei-i Taishōgun, a title given to the commander-in-chief who would lead an army against people resisting the rule of the Japanese imperial court. Sei-i Taishōgun meant “Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians.” This was during the Heian Period, and the very first Sei-i Taishōgun was Ōtomo no Otomaro.
During the 11th century, the daimyo dominated the country’s internal politics with the protection of samurai forces. Two powerful clans, the Taira and the Minamoto, fought to control the declining imperial court; the Taira clan seized control from 1160 to 1185 only to be defeated by the Minamoto clan at the Battle of Dan-no-ura, a major sea battle that occurred on March 24, 1185. Minamoto no Yorimoto became the founder and the first shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate. He developed a political system with a succession of shōgun at the head coming to be known as shogunate. It lasted for almost 150 years.
Alleged portrait of Minamoto no Yorimoto.
Several different shōguns made a mark in Japan’s history until Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished his office in 1867 to the Meiji Emperor. Here are a couple of notable shoguns:
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616)—founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate that ruled from 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. He had great qualities that allowed him to rise to power and fight as a warrior general in 90 battles.
Portrait of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Ashikaga Yoshiteru (1536–1565), also known as Yoshifuji, was the 13th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate and reigned from 1546 to 1565. He was skilled with the katana and is remembered as being more of a samurai and warlord.
Today, a shōgun’s equivalent is a prime minister. The term “shōgun” is still used informally to describe a retired Japanese prime minister; one who still has power and influence behind the scenes is called a “shadow shōgun.”
Portrait of Ashikaga Yoshiteru.
These quirky photos of Tokyo by KCP Winter 2015 student Christian-Jay Flores show just how diverse and interesting the metropolis can be. With a bonus shot of Christian-Jay’s class pic!
Check these out:
For more of Christian-Jay’s photos, visit his set at KCP Flickr.
Emperor Meiji (1852–1912), also known as Meiji the Great or Meiji-taitei, was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. During his reign, Japan underwent rapid changes, from being a feudal state to becoming a capitalist imperial world power made possible by Japan’s industrial revolution.
Prior to the Meiji Era was the Tokugawa period, when the Tokugawa Shogunate established itself as the ruler of the country. About 180 lords called daimyo ruled over the shogun’s domains (han). In 1615, Tokugawa Hidetada issued a code of behavior for the nobility, including the emperor. It stated that the emperor was to devote his time to scholarship and the arts. The emperors under the Shogunate regime followed the code and studied Confucian classics, poetry, and calligraphy.
Portrait of Emperor Meiji by Chiossone.
At the time of Emperor Meiji’s birth in 1852, Japan was dominated by the Tokugawa Shogunate and the country was practically isolated from the rest of the world. Emperor Meiji was born on his maternal grandfather’s property in Gosho. His mother, Nakayama Yoshiko, was a concubine to Emperor Kōmei and the daughter of the acting major counselor to the reigning emperor. The young prince was named Sachinomiya, or Prince Sachi. Emperor Meiji was formally adopted by his father’s consort on the 16th of August, 1860, and was formally proclaimed prince of the blood and heir to the throne. On the 11th of November of that year, he was named the crown prince and given the name of Mutsuhito. Emperor Meiji ascended to the throne on the 3rd of February, 1867, after his father’s untimely death. He was only 14 years old.
An adolescent Emperor Meiji with foreign representatives (1868-1870).
During Emperor Meiji’s reign, domains were entirely abolished and Japan was organized into 72 prefectures. The new administration abolished most privileges of the samurai and other class-based distinctions. The Meiji Restoration is a proud part of Japanese history. It enabled Japan to become a preeminent power in the Pacific and a major world player, all within one generation.
Eating sushi without chopsticks is an incomplete experience, somehow. Chopsticks have become familiar utensils in Asian restaurants, and they have also come to serve other uses such as holding up long hair or as a decorative piece.
Developed in China about 5,000 years ago, chopsticks (箸) originated as simple twigs used to remove food from the fire. The use of chopsticks is in perfect harmony with the teachings of Confucius: “The honorable and upright man keeps well away from both the slaughterhouse and the kitchen. And he allows no knives on his table.” This further boosted the popularity of chopsticks. Chopsticks spread to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam in 500 CE. The Japanese used chopsticks strictly for religious ceremonies. In Japan today, chopsticks are used to eat most kinds of Japanese food. Spoons, forks, and knives are commonly reserved for Western dishes.
Assorted chopsticks. | Paul
Here are a few golden rules to remember when dining with chopsticks:
When food is served, the proper etiquette is to take the food with the chopsticks and place it on your own plate before eating it.
Using chopsticks isn’t as simple as it seems. It may take some practice to get the hang of it as there is a proper way to hold and use chopsticks. But once you’ve mastered using chopsticks, you can work on the next step—catching a fly with it as in the movie “Karate Kid.”
Eating sushi. | Roger Walch
When you use your chopsticks while your hand hovers in indecision over the food on the table, it is considered greedy or, in Japanese, sashi bashi.
Most Japanese restaurants provide a chopstick holder or rest. If the chopsticks provided are disposable, there likely won’t be a chopstick holder. But you easily fashion one using the wrapper of the chopstick. Remember not to place your chopsticks upright on your food bowl, as that arrangement resembles the ceremony performed at funerals.
Chopsticks rest. | Wally Gobetz
An adult mouth contains 500 to 1,000 kinds of bacteria with many diseases related to oral bacteria. With that said, keep the spreading of your saliva to a minimum.
Bon appétit or more appropriately, itadakimasu!
Valor, honor, bravery, and the ritual act of suicide by seppuku have always captured my interest whenever I think of the samurai warriors of Japan.
Samurai were the warriors of Japan’s pre-industrial society. As the ruling military class, they became the highest rank in Japanese society during the Edo Period. Samurai were skilled in the use of weapons such as the yari (Japanese spear), yumi (longbow), and most notably the katana (long sword). They lived their lives according to bushido (“the way of the warrior”) which has high Confucian origins in ethical behavior. Many of them also practiced Zen Buddhism.
William Adams (1564–1620), known as Anjin Miura, “the pilot of Miura” in Japan, was the first-ever Western Samurai. Adams, born in Gillingham, Kent, England, was a ship navigator and the first Englishman to reach Japan. Initially he arrived in the island of Kyūshū in April 1600 after a grueling 19 months at sea onboard the ship Liefde. Out of a hundred crew members only 26 remained, most of them sick and dying. The ship was seized and the crew members were imprisoned at Osaka Castle on the orders of Tokugawa Ieyasu, then daimyo of Edo and future shogun. William Adams was questioned three times between May and June 1600 by Tokugawa Ieyasu; Adams’ knowledge of shipbuilding, ships, and nautical mathematics piqued Ieyasu’s interests. Adams was later on asked to help Mukai Shogen, the commander in chief of Japan’s navy of Uraga, to build Japan’s first Western-style ship.
Woodblock print of William Adams.
Ieyasu favored Adams, making him diplomatic and trade advisor, and he gave him many other great privileges. Ultimately, he became Ieyasu’s personal advisor in all things related to Western powers and civilization. He later became the Shogun’s official interpreter. William Adams was presented with two swords that represented the authority of a samurai, and he received the title of hatamoto (bannerman), a prestigious position that made Adams a direct retainer in the Shogun’s court.
Depiction of William Adams meeting Tokugawa Ieyasu.
As a samurai, William Adams was given a fiefdom in Hemi (present-day Yokosuka City) with 80 to 90 servants, an estate valued at 250 koku (a measure of the yearly income of the land in rice, with one koku defined as the quantity of rice sufficient to feed one person for one year).
Willam Adams died at Hirado, north of Nagasaki, on the 16th of May 1620 at the age of 55. His legacy, though not related to bloody battles fought with samurai swords, is a testament to the development and advancement of trade in Japan with the Western world. A monument to William Adams is located at Nihonbashi Muromachi 1-10-8, Tokyo, the location of his former Tokyo home. A celebration in his honor is held each year on the 15th of June.
Grave marker of William Adams.
One of the best times to visit Japan is during spring when all kinds of colorful blooms paint the landscape. Japan is known for its iconic cherry blossoms, but wisteria can be equally as captivating and mesmerizing in its beauty.
Wisteria is a type of flowering plant that belongs to the pea family. It includes a species of woody climbing vine native to countries like the United States, Korea, China, and Japan. Wisteria (fuji) grows all around Japan and has influenced Japanese culture.
Wisteria at Wake, Okayama. | Takuma Kimura
Fuji Musumè (Wisteria Maiden) is the subject of popular Japanese folk paintings (Otsu-e) and is believed to have been inspired by traditional dances. The paintings were commonly sold as good luck charms for marriages. There is also a famous classical kabuki dance called Fuji Musumè.
Fuji Musumè kabuki. | cheran
Kawachi Wisteria Garden in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka Prefecture is the perfect place to view wisteria in all its wondrous glory. Established in 1977, Kawachi Wisteria Garden is about an hour’s drive away from Fukuoka City. It is only open during wisteria season, usually late April or early May.
There are about 150 trees (some over a hundred years old) made up of 22 types of wisteria in an array of vivid colors. There are wisteria domes, trellises, and two wisteria tunnels—an 80-meter-long tunnel and a 220-meter-long tunnel with flowers forming a brilliant roof, cascading all the way down in a waterfall of bouquets. The fresh scent of the blossoms, the colors, and the lush foliage can only be described as otherworldly. It is easy to get lost in the beauty of it all.
At Kawachi Wisteria Garden. | Sagra-KS
Check out this slideshow of Kawachi Wisteria Garden uploaded to YouTube by misgm:
Click image or here: https://youtu.be/H9Mc71TMDKo